Further advances are likely to come from the development of new targeted agents and from better integration of systemic therapy with other modalities such as surgery, radiation therapy, and liver-directed therapies.
Genetically, colorectal cancer represents a complex disease, and genetic alterations are often associated with progression from premalignant lesion (adenoma) to invasive adenocarcinoma.
H-MSI is also found in about 20% of sporadic colon cancers.
Colorectal cancer is a multifactorial disease process.
Sequence of molecular and genetic events leading to transformation from adenomatous polyps to overt malignancy has been characterized by Vogelstein and Fearon.
In addition to mutations, epigenetic events such as abnormal DNA methylation can also cause silencing of tumor suppressor genes or activation of oncogenes.It could be something as simple as a run away script or learning how to better use E-utilities, for more efficient work such that your work does not impact the ability of other researchers to also use our site.To restore access and understand how to better interact with our site to avoid this in the future, please have your system administrator contact [email protected] studies have linked increased risk of colorectal cancer with a diet high in red meat and animal fat, low-fiber diets, and low overall intake of fruits and vegetables.A study by Aune et al found that a high intake of fiber was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.Risk was especially high in overweight and obese men and, paradoxically, in lean women.Risk was also increased in men and women who do not drink alcohol.This knowledge is slowly making its way into the clinic and being employed to better stratify individual risks of developing colorectal cancer, discover better screening methodologies, allow for better prognostication, and improve the ability to predict benefit from new anticancer therapies.In the past 10 years, an unprecedented advance in systemic therapy for colorectal cancer has dramatically improved outcome for patients with metastatic disease.Until the mid-1990s, the only approved agent for colorectal cancer was 5-fluorouracil.Since then, new agents in a variety of classes have become available, including the following: Although surgery remains the definitive treatment modality, these new agents will likely translate into improved cure rates for patients with early-stage disease (stage II and III) and prolonged survival for those with stage IV disease.