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Table 6.7 reveals the detailed picture of this trend in urbanisation.Moreover, urbanisation has an increasing impact on the concentration of population towards relatively higher income categories.
Due to social and economic pressures, people from backward villages started to move towards urbanised centres in search of job, where newly established industries and ancillary activities continuously offer job opportunities to those people migrating to cities.
With the gradual growth of the economy, the process of urbanisation depends on the shift of surplus population from rural to urban areas along-with the growth of some industrialised urban centres.
Accordingly, the total population of Class I towns also increased from 273 lakhs in 1951 to 943 lakh in 1981 showing an increase of nearly 245 per cent.
During the same period, the number of Class II towns has increased from 95 to 270 and that of Class III towns increased from 330 to 739 in 1981.
If we compare degree of urbanisation in India with that of developed countries then we can find that India is lagging far behind the high-income countries. In India, towns are classified into six different classes.
In 1985, the proportion of urban population to total population was 92 per cent in U. From the census data, it has been observed that in Class I town (having a population more than 1 lakh) the proportion of urban population concentration has increased from 25.7 per cent in 1901 to 60.4 per cent in 1981.Measurement of the degree of urbanisation in a country like India is considered very important. As per the first simple method we observed that the total urban population in India in 1981 was a little less than one fourth of the total population in comparison to that of one-ninth in 1921 and one-sixth in 1951.The second method, i.e., the urban-rural growth differential (URGD) method also revealed that the growth rates of both rural and urban population are very close to each other at present.K., 86 per cent in Australia, 76 per cent in Japan, and 74 per cent in U. Thus there is an increasing trend towards huge concentration of population in the bigger towns.In Class II and Class III towns together, the proportion of urban population remained almost constant at the level of 26 to 28 per cent during the period 1901-81. Contents: Urbanisation is one of the common characteristics of economic development.The proportion of urban population to total population which was only 11 per cent in 1911 slowly increased to 11.3 per cent in 1921 and then gradually rose to 14 per cent in 1941. The pace of urbanisation gradually declines only when the proportion of urban population to total population of the country becomes too high. The pace of urbanisation is fast if the industrial growth is fast.In the 1971 census, a new definition of an urban unit was adopted and that definition was continued in 1981 census.This definition was as follows: (a) All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee etc.