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Achtert (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1977), pp. But, while certain practices are optional, consistency is mandatory. Although there are many required uses, punctuation is, to some extent, a matter of personal preference.
Use single quotation marks for definitions or translations that appear without intervening punctuation (e.g., ‘thus’). In Shakespeare’s , Antony begins his famous speech: “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; / I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” Verse quotations of more than three lines should be separated from the text by triple-spacing, introduced in most cases by a colon, indented [0.5 inches] from the left margin (…), and typed with double-spacing (…) but without quotation marks unless they appear in the original.
For the use of quotation marks with titles, see §13; and, for use of single and double quotation marks in quoted material, see §14f. Semicolons are used to separate items in a series when some of the items require internal commas. The spatial arrangement of the of the original (including indentation and spacing within and between lines) should be reproduced as accurately as possible. Still spending, never spent; I meane Thy faire eyes, sweet that Jaques is given the speech that many think contains a glimpse of Shakespeare’s conception of drama: All the world’s a stage And all the men and woman merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. Prose quotations of not more than four lines in the typescript, unless special emphasis is required, should always be incorporated, within quotation marks, as part of the text.
Numbers compared or contrasted should be in the same style (5 out of 125, 2½ to 3 years old or two-and-a-half to three years old). A hyphen is added if the century is being used as an adjective (eighteenth-century thought; nineteenth- and twentieth-century literature). If, however, the first sentence quoted is not the beginning of a paragraph in the source, do not indent it the additional [0.2 inches]. When omitting a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, writers should be guided by two principles: (1) fairness to the author being quoted and (2) clarity and correct grammar in their own writing.
In technical or statistical discussions involving their frequent use or in notes, where many space-saving devices are legitimate, all numbers may be written as numerals. Decades are also usually written out without capitalization (the seventies), but it is … In , Defoe maintains the pseudo-autobiographical narration typical of the picaresque tradition: My true name is so well known in the records or registers at Newgate, and in the records or registers at Newgate, and in the Old Bailey, and there are some things of such consequence still depending there, relating to my particular conduct, that it is not to be expected I should set my name or the account of my family to this work. If only a fragment of a sentence is quoted, it will be obvious that some of the original sentence has been left out: In his Inaugural Address, Kennedy spoke of a “new frontier.” But if, after material from the original has been omitted, the quotation appears to be a grammatical sentence or a series of grammatical sentences, the omission (or omissions) should be indicated by using [an] ellipsis ….
For their use in documentation and bibliography, see §§ 31c, 31h, and 41c. They are also conventional in dates (January 1, 1980), names (W. Stray dogs, abandoned cats, injured birds, orphaned baby rabbits—all found a home with us. Hyphens also join prefixes to capitalized words (post-Renaissance) and link pairs of coequal nouns (poet-priest, teacher-scholar). (On the [italicizing] of titles, see §13.) Phrases, words, or letters cited as linguistic examples and foreign words used in English text are [italicized]. Where divisions are unavoidable, practice in [North America] is to divide words according to pronunciation (“rep-re-sent”), whereas the British divide according to word derivation (“re-pre-sent”). Bear in mind that in French, when capital letters are followed by lowercase letters, the capital letters are not always accented (always “école,” but “Ecole” is acceptable). In German words the dieresis, not ae, oe, ue), even for initial capitals (“Über”). A digraph is a combination of two letters that represents only one sound (e.g., in “broad”). Titles of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, songs, chapters of books, unpublished works (such as dissertations), lectures and speeches, courses, and individual episodes of radio and television programs are enclosed in quotation marks.
Many other compounds, however, are written as one word (wordplay, storytelling) or as two (social security tax, a happily married man). The numerous exceptions to this last rule include quotations entirely in another language, titles of articles in another language (placed within quotation marks), proper names, and foreign words anglicized through frequent usage. They also come at the end of notes and after complete blocks of information in bibliographical citations (see §41). Other languages have their own rules for dividing words: French, for instance, usually divides on a vowel (“ho-me-rique”; in English, “Ho-mer-ic”). Although it is never unacceptable to place an accent over a capital letter that would require one if it were lowercase, the practice of French printers varies when words appear entirely in capital letters: , and capital letters bearing a circumflex are often accented, but often not. But common usage must be observed for names: Götz, but Goethe. In many languages, some digraphs appear united in print (æ, œ, ß). “Sharp Rise in Unemployment” (article in a newspaper) “Sources of Energy in the Twenty-First Century” (article in a magazine) “The Writer’s Audience is Always a Fiction” (article in a scholarly journal) “Etruscan” (encyclopedia article) “The Fiction of Langston Hughes” (essay in a book) “Young Goodman Brown” (short story) “Kubla Khan” (poem) “Summertime” (song) “Italian Literature before Dante” (chapter in a book) “Goethe’s and the German Puppet-Play” (unpublished dissertation) “The Style and the Story: Shakespeare’s Appropriate and Varying Artistry” (lecture) “Introductory Mathematics” (course) “The Joy Ride” (episode of the television program ) c. If a title indicated by quotation marks appears within an [italicized] title, the quotation marks are retained.All testify that he taught his contemporaries to see things, to recognise relationships, to love what is fine, to be aware of depths, and to discover the hidden ways of the human soul, and that he did this with a gentle but sure conviction. Unless indicated in brackets, liberties must not be taken with the spelling or punctuation of the original.The writer must construct sentences that allow, on the one hand, for the exactness of the quotation and, on the other, for clarity and correct grammatical structure.(For the use of periods with ellipsis, see §14d; for periods within quotation marks, see §14f.) k. Enclose in double quotation marks words to which attention is being directed (e.g., words purposely misused or used in a special sense, words referred to as words, and parenthetical English translations of words or phrases from another language). 2–3, 10–12, 21–28, 103–04, 395–401, 923–1003, 1003–05, 1608–774, 1999–2004, 12345–47, 12345–3300. On the use of Roman numerals in documentation, see §§ 31i and 31j. “An Interpretation of Coleridge’s ‘Kubla Khan’” (article) When a normally [italicized] title appears within another [italicized] title, the shorter title appears neither [italicized] nor in quotation marks. (On capitalization, see §15.) Introduction Preface Appendix Index e. If a title is to be mentioned often in the text, after the first full reference in the text or in a note, use only a shortened (if possible, familiar or obvious) title or abbreviation (e.g., “Nightingale” for “Ode to a Nightingale”; ; HEW for Department of Health, Education and Welfare). Exceptions, such as the [italicizing] of words for emphasis or the modernization of spelling, must be explicitly indicated or explained in a note or enclosed in parentheses at the end of the quotation or in square brackets within the quotation (on the uses of parentheses and square brackets, see §§ 10i and 10n): Lincoln specifically advocated a government “ the people” (emphasis added). Unless unusual emphasis is required, verse quotations of a single line or part of a line should be incorporated, within quotation marks, as part of the text.Note, however, that words used as examples in linguistic studies are [italicized] and not enclosed in double quotation marks (see §10h). Take care to ensure that the syntax of your sentence accords grammatically with that of the quotation. Quotations of two or three lines may also be placed in the text, within quotation marks, but with the lines separated by a slash ( / ), with a space on each side of the slash.(…) The most dissimilar people said similar if not identical things about this unique soul, this poet who gave so much delight. All testify that he taught his contemporaries to see things, to recognise relationships, to love what is fine, to be aware of depths ….” …They spoke of his wonderfully balanced humanity, the expanse and gentleness of his spirit and his incredibly subtle art. The accuracy of the quotation and the exact reproduction of the original are paramount in scholarly writing.In words of more than one syllable ending in a sibilant, only the apostrophe is added (Hopkins’ poems, Cervantes’ (Camus’s novels). Colons are used to indicate that what follows will be an example, explanation, or elaboration of what has just been said. If the context requires a comma (as it does here), the comma follows a closing parenthesis, but a comma never precedes an opening parenthesis. Carter’s sweep of the South—Virginia was the only Southern state to vote Republican—helped give him the election.They are commonly used to introduce quotations (see §§ 14b, 14c, and 14f). Commas are usually required between items in a series (blood, sweat, and tears), between coordinate adjectives (an absorbing, frightening account), before coordinating conjunctions joining independent clauses, around parenthetical elements, and after fairly long phrases or clauses preceding the main clause of a sentence. See §§ 31, 33, 35, and 41 for the usage of the comma in documentation and bibliography; see §14f for commas with quotation marks. Many twentieth-century American writers—Faulkner, Capote, Styron, Williams, to name only a few—come from the South. Exclamation marks should be used sparingly in scholarly writing. Hyphens are used to form some types of compound words, particularly compound adjectives that precede the word(s) they modify (a mind-boggling experience, a well-established policy, a first-rate study). In quoting, reproduce all accents exactly as they appear in the original.Common practice is to put a comma between the third and fourth digits from the right, the sixth and seventh, and so on. Perhaps, after my death, it may be better known; at present it would not be proper, no, not tho’ a general pardon should be issued, even without exceptions of persons or crimes. some of my worst comrades, who are out of the way of doing me harm, having gone out of the world by the steps and the string as I often expected to go, knew me by the name of Moll Flanders. For [an] ellipsis a sentence, [leave] a space before and after ….1,000 20,000 7,654,321 Exceptions to this practice include page and line numbers of four or more digits, addresses, and year numbers. A quotation that can stand as a complete sentence should end with a period even if something in the original has been omitted.