Informal Fallacies In Critical Thinking

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What is tougher to decipher is how much of this information is simply spurious assertions, conspiracy theories or misinterpreted information. Fundamentals of argumentation theory: A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments. If means that when someone on the Right makes a dire prediction, liberal will usually reply, "Don't be ridiculous - that will never, ever happen.

Navigating this bombardment of information and process it appropriately requires not only attaining of knowledge, but also adapting in light of existing knowledge, through critical thinking. And boy do you bastards deserve what you're going to get! A few years back, religious conservatives argued "If gay marriage is legalized, before long the government will punish schools and churches that don't endorse gay rights." Liberals blithely insisted, " You're paranoid, there's no way that could ever happen. And when it does, the same liberals who insisted it was impossible will laugh and say, "Hell yes it happened, and it serves you bigots right." See, we religious conservatives DESERVE all the bad stuff liberals assure us can't possibly happen.

Simply, a strawman is built so it can be knocked down. Tu Quoque (translated from Latin as ‘you too’), or the , refers to avoiding refutation or critique by reverting the same criticism back on to the accuser, without addressing the initial refutation.

Another way of looking at this fallacy is as challenging a claim by asserting that the claimant’s behavior is inconsistent with the conclusion they have drawn.

It has been suggested that approximately five exabytes (i.e. The interesting question is whether American Power Elites actually believe that MG solutions would work or if they are content at parasitically extract the remaining wealth from what they know to be a dying carcass.

about 5,000,000,000 pickup truck beds full of information typed on paper) of data are created each day. Related to #11, something we hear from the gun fanatics in the US: Nazi Germany had gun control. Conservative Christian blogger Rod Dreher coined this term: "The Law of Merited Impossibility." What does that mean?Simply, there is a one in two chance of a coin landing tails up, so based on this assessment, some might say if heads comes up on the first flip, then it seems likely the coin will come up tails on the second flip. This would be an incorrect assessment of probability, as coins do not have a memory. Every flip and every spin is new and is not dictated by what happened previously. However, experts do not always agree when it comes to evaluating the evidence; and sometimes, an expert makes a bold statement that lacks credibility because it lacks supportive evidence (in which case the appeal to authority would be a fallacy). An Appeal to Emotion aims to manipulate emotions or evoke an affective response to gain acceptance, as opposed to using logically compelling evidence. Appeals to pity and compassion are among the most common forms of this argument. The Bandwagon Argument is simply an appeal to popularity. The evaluation of argument mapping as a learning tool. For example, where two alternatives are proposed (generally extremes), the middle ground fallacy incorrectly supposes that the truth must rest somewhere in between (i.e. However, it could very well be the case that truth rests in one of the two ‘extremes’. Moving the Goalposts refers to adding related propositions with just enough content altered to continue an argument, in order to avoid conceding after the initial claim had been successfully counter-argued. Cognitive load theory: Recent theoretical advances. Similar argument types that fall under this umbrella of fallacies include . Personal Incredulity refers to the dismissal of a claim by an individual due to a lack of understanding of either the claim itself or the supports for that claim (e.g. Social media is many things: entertainment, education and networking, just to name a few. Unfortunately, it is also a vehicle for promoting faulty thinking. Anecdotes can be a very powerful tool of persuasion but are a weak basis for an argument. Often, after critically thinking about patterns in human history, it may be that the subsequent event is likely to happen, in which case, the slippery slope argument may not be illogical. However, such judgment depends on the context of the argument.


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