Khan Academy Critical Thinking

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Now it's a little harder to think of a [br]sufficient condition for getting accepted to a university.But consider some seventeen year old who[br]just won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Now it's a little harder to think of a [br]sufficient condition for getting accepted to a university.But consider some seventeen year old who[br]just won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

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Now this is a special, technical use of[br]the word "valid." In ordinary life, we often use this word[br]to mean something like good, cogent, or reasonable.

Like if you're disagreeing with someone[br]about something, and they respond to a claim you make by saying something that[br]seems pretty reasonable to you, you might say, "Well, I guess you have[br]a valid point." Though that's what the word often means[br]in ordinary life, it's not what the word means here.

But not all deductive arguments are good,[br]and so there are several things to think about when deciding whether to believe the[br]conclusion of a deductive argument.

A good deductive argument really does[br]guarantee its conclusion.

Seems like that is pretty sufficient for [br]getting accepted to university.

Now, necessary and sufficient conditions [br]come in all combinations.

Another necessary condition is perhaps[br]having decent grades. If p is sufficient for Q, then P's being [br]true is enough to make Q true.

Philosophers often put this by saying that[br]if P is true, then Q is true.

Part of what this means is that its[br]impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false.

When this is the case, we say that the[br]argument is valid.

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