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These findings fill a gap in the research literature on labeling, life course, general strain, and deterrence theories.To our knowledge, the relationships among police contact, psychological strain, and subsequent criminal behavior for young boys had not been tested quantitatively before.These findings advance the scientific understanding of crime and adolescent development while also raising policy questions about the efficacy of routine police stops of black and Latino youth.
Proactive policing has radically changed how America experiences public safety.
Instead of reacting to calls for service as was typical through the 1950s, police agencies now seek to prevent crimes by proactively deploying officers in places where crime is likely to be reported and interacting with the people most likely to be accused of crimes (1).
The report also acknowledges a growing body of literature that suggests that proactive policing can negatively affect the public legitimacy of law enforcement (3, 4), even motivating avoidance of law-related officials altogether (5–8).
Finally, the report laments a dearth of quantitative research on the effects of proactive policing on racial disparities or youth criminality.
The idea that proactive policing will reduce crime is premised on deterrence theory (9, 10).
Broadly, there are three types of deterrence theory most relevant to the present research: general, specific, and focused deterrence.
You can read Victoria Herrington and Andrew Colvin's article 'Police Leadership for Complex Times' for free.
Browse the ASC Division of Policing virtual issue for free.
They are works in progress that are presented to promote the sharing of valuable work experience and knowledge.
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