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A commercially available magnetometer and magnetic tracer were used for SLN identification in patients suffering from colorectal cancer to evaluate the feasibility of the technique.
Patient, animal and phantom studies were performed to optimize the use of the SLNB technique with magnetic nanoparticles in breast cancer patients.
In colorectal cancer currently used experimental techniques suffer from limitations, hampering widespread clinical implementation of the technique. However, the worldwide availability of radioisotopes, and therefore the best treatment, is limited. In colorectal cancer, the objective is to introduce a SLN procedure allowing to improve nodal staging accuracy in a routine clinical workflow after ex vivo administration of magnetic nanoparticles.
In breast cancer, we aim to introduce an entirely radioisotope-free method for in vivo SLN Biopsy (SLNB).
The experimental findings are compared with calculated magnetic anisotropy contributions of the three different types of deposited nanoparticles (NPs).
It was found that despite their different atomic structure, the body-centered cubic (bcc) iron and face-centered cubic (fcc) cobalt nanoparticles have a similar behavior and can exist in a state which demonstrates an unexpected ferromagnetic (FM) behavior with sizes down to 8 nm at room temperature (RT), while nickel particles only exhibit the expected superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior.In Chapter 4 It was found that by replacing the polyol solvents used in Chapter 3 with a large excess of bulky surfactant molecules it was possible to form high aspect ratio lanthanide oxide (Ln Ox) nanowires and ribbons.It was found that the nanowires formed via an intriguing 3-stage ‘oriented assembly’ mechanism, in which individual NPs form, before aligning anisotropically and recrystallising into a more crystallographically homogeneous product.It was found that solvents containing functional groups (especially primary alcohols) afforded the greatest control over final MNP morphology and that the presence of additional alkyl substituents could disrupt the packing of surfactant molecules around a particle surface, giving rise to more complex ‘compound’ MNPs.Magnetic measurements show the particles to be superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetisation values close to that of the bulk.The thesis addresses a subject with broad implications in various scientific and technical areas.It presents unique direct observations of the magnetic state of single particles of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) with nanoscopic dimensions by means of spatially-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD).The effects of reaction environment, temperature, concentration, and modified seed growth parameters were investigated to obtain precise control over properties affecting radiofrequency heat generation.This thesis details the chemical synthesis and nanocharacterisation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs).Detailed calculations of all magnetic anisotropy contributions for different sizes and types of particles indicate that the reported high anisotropy state can be associated with a meta-stable structural state due to the presence of local defects within the NPs, independent of the particle atomic structure and size.These observations shed new light on the mechanisms which establish the size-dependent evolution of magnetic properties at the nanoscale.