Using telephones, flares, signal lights, pigeons and runners, he maintained communications between the army staff directing the battles from the rear and the officers in the field.
France only wanted to recovery the territories she and Belgium had lost to Germany.
This preoccupation hampered British-French strategy. At the beginning people felt the war would be over by Christmas 1914 and so they joined the army for a share of the glory.
His aim was to produce a modern version of the medieval quest: an account of both the terrors and virtues of war, clothed in the language of myth.
In “The Lord of the Rings,” we meet Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee, Hobbits of the Shire, on a fateful mission to destroy the last Ring of Power and save Middle-earth from enslavement and destruction.
“Parting from my wife,” he wrote, doubting that he would survive the trenches, “was like a death.”The 24-year-old Tolkien arrived in time to take part in the Battle of the Somme, a campaign intended to break the stalemate between the Allies and Central Powers. The first day of the battle, July 1, produced a frenzy of bloodletting.
That day, 100 years ago, remains the most lethal in Britain’s military history.The heroism of Tolkien’s characters depends on their capacity to resist evil and their tenacity in the face of defeat.It was this quality that Tolkien witnessed among his comrades on the Western Front.“I have always been impressed that we are here, surviving, because of the indomitable courage of quite small people against impossible odds,” he explained.French commander in chief thought the Western Front was the only battle worth fighting.The British thought that the war in the east against the Ottoman Empire was very important and so the military priorities of Britain and France often clashed.Though the debt is largely overlooked, Tolkien’s supreme literary achievement, “The Lord of the Rings,” owes a great deal to his experience at the Somme.Reaching the front shortly after the offensive began, Tolkien served for four months as a battalion signals officer with the 11th Lancashire Fusiliers in the Picardy region of France.Germans tried and failed to outflank British and French armies by sweeping north.After the failure of this, they went for the English Channel to seize ports instead.By 1917 the growing sense of despair and lack of purpose (the political purposes had been lost amid the death and destruction caused by the war and by the never ceasing deadlock) caused widespread discontent in the French and Russian armies.Both sides had equal forces, there was a tragic equilibrium where both sides kept trying but gained nothing.