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Here, research in brain processes moves to theories on cognitive faculties enabling consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory, or the .In all these areas of brain activity, our experience of music, in particular the way it engages our emotions, memory, cognition, and movement/motor activity are intimately related.
However the considerable delay involved in recording the BOLD signal, means f MRI can only be considered as an indirect measure of music perception/processing in .
Although far less precise at illuminating changes in brain structures and connectivity, EEG methods offer greater sensitivity to the timing of brain activity, recording the faint electrical activity of the brain to millisecond accuracy, and with much less physical restriction than f MRI.
Note: Although the image displays parts of the right hemisphere of the brain, many musical subfunctions are actually largely bilateral (with the exception of pitch and melody processing, which is more lateralized to the right hemisphere).
Reprinted with permission [view full size image] in music therapy, from a perspective shared by mainstream scientific and medical approaches.
Neuroscience involves the study of the nervous system at a molecular, cellular, and systems level.
Drawing on cellular and systems models, the related disciplines of neuropsychology, cognitive, and behavioural neuroscience explore how neural systems relate to each other to generate a range of behaviours and cognitive functions.
music) in a resting state, and how the shape and connectivity of brain regions change over time.
Blood flow responses to neural activity resulting from a change in blood-oxygen levels (blood oxygenation level dependent or BOLD changes) are measured, providing fine grained 3-D images to a high level of accuracy in terms of locating specifically where brain activity is.
As a consequence of these collaborations, neuroscientific understanding is emerging of how music therapy may support improvements in cognition, movement and emotional regulation, as well as helping us to explore the neurological aspects of therapeutic relationships.
This paper provides an overview of this field of investigation, focussing on the significant areas of progress in work with those living with stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, affective disorders, disorders of consciousness, autism, cancer and palliative conditions.